Five approaches to TESOL



Direct Method :   teacher uses a direct way to teach   things to students , such as flashcards, real objects, gesture, facial expression etc. to explain the meaning of the words and sentences . Students can imitate the teacher at first , then oral and listening communicative competence is stressed, later reading and writing are stressed. Teacher also needs to pay attention to pronunciation and vocabulary.

TPR:   TPR is a teaching way based on listening linked to physical activities which are designed for helping students to get a quick understanding even they do not know how to speak in the target language at the beginning. When they have the chance to participate in , they will have a better comprehensive on what they are learning.

Cognitive Approach : teacher offers material to let students understand the language first , then use the target language to develop students competence in practical , finally teacher creates a situation , students can make a discussion based on the situation.

The Natural Approach : Teacher presents the content by using the real objects , pictures etc. to help students understand at first, then students are expected to respond teacher’s commands and questions in other ways if they are not ready. Teacher can provide comprehensible language and simple responses opportunities when students are ready to begin talking in the new language.

The Rassias Method : The best way to learn a second language is to speak it and live it and involve both your intellect and your emotions.   The goal of the Rassias method is to make the participant feel comfortable and natural with the language in a short period of time.

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